System Project Development
Cogeneration District Energy
Management, District Energy,
Balance of System
What is Balance of System?
In solar power plants, balance of system or "BOS," refers to the equipment and components of the solar power plant other than the parabolic trough or solar photovoltaic panels, consisting of the remaining components that make-up the entire solar power plant. Therefore, the balance of system would include; inverters, switches, support racks, wiring and the batteries/battery energy storage system and molten salt storage if installed in the case of concentrated solar power plants.
Land is sometimes included as part of the solar power plant's balance of system.
What is Trigeneration?
Trigeneration is the simultaneous production of three forms of energy - typically, Cooling, Heating and Power - from only one fuel input.
Stated another way, our trigeneration power plants produce three different types of energy for the price of one.
Trigeneration energy systems now exceed the efficiency of central power plants by almost 300% as overall trigeneration system efficiency is about 90%. Typical "central" power plants, that do not need the heat generated from the combustion and power generation process, are only about 33% efficient.
Basically, a trigeneration power plant is a cogeneration power plant that has added absorption chillers for producing chilled water from the heat that would have been wasted from a cogeneration power plant.
In addition to the economic benefits and advantages, trigeneration plants reduce our dependence on foreign energy supplies and help our environment by dramatically reducing greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide - when compared to typical power plants. Trigeneration has been hailed the "hat-trick of the energy industry" with system efficiencies approaching and exceeding 90%.
Trigeneration plants are very energy efficient, conserve natural resources and reduce fuel consumption as the system operates at such high efficiencies. Cogeneration and trigeneration power plants are about 90% efficient and approximately 300% more efficient than "central power plants" that average 27% to 40% efficiency. When fueled with renewable fuel, cogeneration and trigeneration plants are carbon neutral, producing no greenhouse gas emissions and the optimum solution for clients seeking to reduce their energy expenses and greenhouse gas emissions.
Trigeneration Diagram & Description
Trigeneration plaants' have the highest system efficiencies and are
about 300 % more efficient than typical central power plants
Companies and industries that would likely benefit from installation of their own Trigeneration plant include;
* Central Plants
* City centers
* Colleges & Universities
* Company campuses
* Data Centers
* District Heating & Cooling
* Electric utilities
* Food Processing Plants
* Government Buildings and Facilities
* Grocery Stores
* Manufacturing Plants
* Military Bases
* Nursing Homes
* Office Buildings
* Refrigerated Warehouses
* Server Farms
* Shopping centers
Clean Power Generation Solutions
"Integrated" CHP Systems (Cogeneration and Trigeneration) Plants
Have Very High Efficiencies, Low Fuel Costs & Low Emissions
The Effective Heat Rate is Approximately
4100 btu/kW & System Efficiency is 92% Plant.
The CHP System below is Rated at 900 kW and Features:
(2) Natural Gas Engines @ 450 kW each on one Skid with Optional
Selective Catalytic Reduction system that removes Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect."
Our CHP Systems (available in either cogeneration or trigeneration may be the best solution for your company's economic and environmental sustainability as we "upgrade" natural gas to clean power with our clean power generation solutions.
Our Emissions Abatement solutions reduce Nitrogen Oxides to "non-detect" which means our CHP Systems can be installed and operated in most EPA non-attainment regions!
What is "Decentralized Energy"?
Decentralized Energy is the opposite of "centralized energy."
Decentralized Energy energy generates the power and energy that a residential, commercial or industrial customer needs, onsite. Examples of decentralized energy production are natural gas fueled CHP Systems, Rooftop PV and solar cogeneration energy systems.
Today's electric utility industry was "born" in the 1930's, when fossil fuel prices were cheap, and the cost of wheeling the electricity via transmission power lines, was also cheap. "Central" power plants could be located hundreds of miles from the load centers, or cities, where the electricity was needed. These extreme inefficiencies and cheap fossil fuel prices have added a considerable economic and environmental burden to the consumers and the planet.
Centralized energy is found in the form of electric utility companies that generate power from "central" power plants. Central power plants are highly inefficient, averaging only 33% net system efficiency. This means that the power coming to your home or business - including the line losses and transmission inefficiencies of moving the power - has lost 75% to as much as 80% energy it started with at the "central" power plant. These losses and inefficiencies translate into significantly increased energy expenses by the residential and commercial consumers.
Decentralized Energy is the Best Way to Generate Clean and Green Energy!
How we make and distribute electricity is changing!
The electric power generation, transmission and distribution system (the electric "grid") is changing and evolving from the electric grid of the 19th and 20th centuries, which was inefficient, highly-polluting, very expensive and “dumb.”
The "old" way of generating and distributing energy resembles this slide:
The electric grid of the 21st century (see slide below)
Decentralized, Smart, Efficient and provide "carbon
free energy" and "pollution free
power” to customers who remain on the
electric grid. Some customers will choose to dis-connect from the
(Electric grid represented by the small light blue circles in the slide below.)
Why Concentrated Solar Power is one of the Few "Superior" Renewable Energy Technologies
Concentrated solar power plants, also referred to as "concentrating solar power" and "concentrating solar thermal" plants, use the high annual solar irradiance of the geographic location to generate "carbon free energy" and "pollution free power."
For generating power after the sun sets, many owners/developers of concentrated solar power plants are now installing "Molten Salt Storage" systems that reserves enough energy to allow for electricity generation throughout the nighttime period.
Steam turbines and gas turbines powered by coal, uranium, oil and natural gas are the fuels used today for generating power and electric grid stability. These fuels provide both base-load and peak power. However, these same steam turbines can also be powered by the high temperature heat from concentrating solar power plants.
Concentrated solar power plants in the 30 MW - 200 MW range are now operating successfully in locations from California to Europe. Nearly every day now, new concentrated solar power plants are being planned for construction. The concentrating solar collectors are very efficient and they also completely replace the fossil fuels that were used in traditional power plants. Today's concentrated solar power plants generate the heat needed to generate electricity at a cost equivalent to $50 - $60 per barrel of oil (equivalent). This cost is expected be slashed by 50% to below $25 - $30 per barrel in the next 10 years.
Just like conventional fossil-fueled power plants, concentrated solar power plants generate base-load and peaking power electricity.
Just like fossil fuel fired conventional power plants, concentrating solar power plants have an availability that is close to 100 %, but without the carbon emissions, carbon dioxide emissions, hazardous air pollutants, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and greenhouse gas emissions that fossil fuel power plants emit.
solar power plant with a
molten salt storage facility for
full load operation during the nighttime period is currently being built in
Nevada. This concentrated
solar power plant will generate 50 MW of
Another feature that distinguishes concentrated solar power plants is the opportunity for combined generation of heat and power - a technology that is called "Integrated Solar Combined Cycle" which achieves the highest possible efficiencies for energy conversion. In addition to power generation, such plants can provide steam for absorption chillers or adsorption chillers, industrial process heat or thermal ocean water desalination. A design study for such a plant was completed in 2006. This plant is scheduled to be commissioned in early 2009. This Integrated Solar Combined Cycle will provide 10 MW of power, 40 MW of district cooling and 10,000 cubic meters per day of desalted water for a large hotel in Jordan.
Carbon Dioxide Emissions
Since the year 1750
World CO2 since 1750 (cubic feet)
World Carbon Dioxide Emissions since 1750 (cubic feet)
The carbon clock tracks total carbon dioxide emissions in metric tons since 1750.
Since 1750, humans have emitted over 5 trillion pounds of carbon emissions into the atmosphere. Roughly half of this has ended up in the oceans where it is beginning to damage the coral reefs. The other half is still in the atmosphere and causing global warming. Each pound of CO2 takes up as much space as a 500 pound person.
The formula (which should be good for a year or two) is:
C(t) = 2.58 ×1012 + 1240×t, where t is seconds since the start of 2007.
C is tonnes (metric tons) of carbon dioxide emissions.
2205 x C gives pounds of carbon dioxide emissions.
That comes to over 43 billion tons/year or over 86 trillion pounds/year.
Carbon dioxide (2) = 1 carbon atom with 2 oxygen atoms.
Carbon has relative weight 12 and Oxygen 16.
So it takes only 12 pounds of carbon to make 12+16+16 = 44 pounds of CO2.
"Concentrated Solar Power - The Technology That Will
Save Humanity." ~ Dr. Joseph Romm
Replacing the "brown" power generated from fossil fuel power plants with renewable energy power plants such as Concentrated Solar Power or HCPV solar power plants, not only generates green power, but eliminates Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Hazardous Air Pollutants, while reducing the Earth's Fever and imports of foreign oil!
Solar Power - The Technology That Will
Save Humanity." ~ Dr. Joseph Romm
Solar Power now
Net Zero Energy Market to Become $1.3 Trillion/year Industry by 2035
Net Zero Energy Buildings Are Coming;
What About The Buildings Already Standing?
The market for Distributed PV, also known as "Rooftop PV"
will be a $60 billion/year market by 2013!
“spending hundreds and hundreds and hundreds of billions of dollars every year for oil, much of it from the Middle East, is just about the single stupidest thing that modern society could possibly do. It’s very difficult to think of anything more idiotic than that.” ~ R. James Woolsey, Jr., former Director of the CIA
Price of Addiction|
to Foreign Oil
According to R. James Woolsey, former Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, “The basic insight is to realize that global warming, the geopolitics of oil, and warfare in the Persian Gulf are not separate problems — they are aspects of a single problem, the West’s dependence on oil.”
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